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  1. Rainer
  2. Sherlock Holmes The Voice
  3. MONTAGE Series Synthesizers
  4. Thursday, 21 March 2019
Hi all,
I have the follow ing question.
I'm working on my first FM-X Parts on Montage and follow first of all the examples of the Music Production Guide 2016 03.
In this first FM-X Article I want to follow programming the Organ. And it do not sound the same as the Audio example.
There are I think some understanding problems.
In this article You find the parameter settings for the Operators as follows:
Operator 1 = 16'
Operator 2 = 5 1/3'
Operator 3 = 8'
Operator 4 = 4'
Operator 5 = 2 2/3'
Operator 6 = 2'
Operator 7 = 1 1/3'
Operator 8 = 1'
The first value is the Coarse value. I understand this. But second values what they are? only the fine value?
Like 2/3.
I use the John Melas Tools to program my Parts. There I can change the Fine Value from 0 to 99.
And what changes I must do to have the same results?
Can someone help?
Responses (4)
Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
Hey Rainer,

first of all the tutorial Performances can be downloaded. The following issue 2016-04 contains the information how to get the files. I am not 100% sure but guess, this Organ example is part of it. Unfortunately I don't have the time to check it right now.

To set the frequency ratios correctly you need to refer to the table on the same page (left column). The example is meant to work on the instrument and I agree that it looks a bit different in the JM editor. But you'll find out. As follows a link to some screenshots, containing the example of settings for OP 1 and 2 and the settings for all OP in the editor.

FM-X Screenshots

Hope this helps.


  1. more than a month ago
  2. MONTAGE Series Synthesizers
  3. # 1
Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
From the article, this text:
Operator 1 = 16'
Operator 2 = 5 1/3'
Operator 3 = 8'
Operator 4 = 4'
Operator 5 = 2 2/3'
Operator 6 = 2'
Operator 7 = 1 1/3'
Operator 8 = 1'

Is conveying two pieces of information. To the left of the equal sign is the Operator Number. This operator number is the one used in the example organ being programmed. If you downloaded the file that contains this organ already pre-done, then it would be good to know which operator goes to which organ stop because the operator number corresponds with the slider number when adjusting volume for each organ stop.

To the right of the equal sign is the organ stop. There may be two sets of numbers - but all of the numbers are the organ stop value. for "= 16' " - this is virtual organ pipe that is 16 feet. Even tonewheel organs show the sound components in terms of feet of pipe. This is because the electronic tonewheel organs are simulating pipe organs that have different feet of pipe. The number "= 2 2/3' " means two and two-thirds feet of pipe.

Here is some more detail from another site ( http://www.dairiki.org/HammondWiki/Drawbars ):
The footages stamped into late model drawbars refers to the relative lengths of pipes used in a pipe organ. The number of feet refers to the approximate length of the pipe that sounds when the lowest key is pressed on the keyboard. The low C key on an organ normally sounds a note of approximately 65Hz. A pipe approximately 8 feet long is required to sound at this frequency. A longer pipe sounds lower and a shorter pipe sounds higher. To halve the frequency and sound a note one octave lower, a pipe needs to be twice as long. Thus, a 16' pipe sounds one octave lower than an 8' pipe and a 4' pipe sounds one octave higher. Fractions are used when the harmonics are not on octaves of the fundamental. 2 2/3', for example, is the third harmonic of 8' and it is an octave and a fifth above.
It might seem odd that the 5 1/3' drawbar was included, especially since it is positioned to the left of the 8' drawbar instead of the right. This is the third harmonic of the 16' drawbar and with the 8' drawbar (the second harmonic) provides a little tonal color to the 16' drawbar. It might seem odd, too, that the 7th harmonic is missing (which see below), but that overtone would sound distinctly out of tune from a Hammond ToneGenerator.

In order to figure out what ratio to program in FM-X, you refer to the other table in this article. Each operator (since this algorithm all operators are carriers) - you set to the "Ratio" type then set coarse to the ratio number (1-8) and fine to 0 for ratios of 1.0 - 8.0. Coarse and fine both to 0 for ratio of 0.5 and coarse=1 fine=50 for a ratio of 1.5.

So, using operators 1-8:

Operator 1 = 16' - so ratio is 0.5 according to other table - so Coarse=0, Fine=0
Operator 2 = 5 1/3' , ratio 1.5 - Coarse=1, Fine=50
Operator 3 = 8', ratio 1.0 - Coarse=1, Fine=0
Operator 4 = 4' , ratio 2.0, Coarse=2, Fine=0
Operator 5 = 2 2/3' , ratio 3.0, Coarse=3, Fine=0
Operator 6 = 2' , ratio 4.0, Coarse=4, Fine=0
Operator 7 = 1 1/3' , ratio 6.0, Coarse=6, Fine=0
Operator 8 = 1' , ratio 8.0, Coarse=8, Fine=0

Yes, ratios 5.0 and 7.0 are "skipped" as explained in the article. 7.0 is not used in the Hammond tonewheel organ due to sounding out of tune and 5.0 ratio (representing a pipe of 1 and 3/5 feet) is not used because they ran out of operators. A hammond organ has 9 drawbars - which would require 9 carriers. There is no alg. that has 9 carriers so within a single PART - you cannot emulate 9 drawbars. Plus - for real-time control - there are only 8 sliders - so you would need to sacrifice a pipe length if you want to use the sliders at once - of which there are only 8. You could add a 2nd PART and force some other controller to be the 9th drawbar if you wanted (like superknob) - but it's just easier to deal with 8 lengths of pipes only and sacrifice one as was done here.
  1. more than a month ago
  2. MONTAGE Series Synthesizers
  3. # 2
Bad Mister
Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
A basic understanding of the Organ (The Father of the Synthesizer):
Synth Basics: The Father of the Synthesizer
Synth Basics: The Organ Father of the Synthesizer Part II
Synth Basics: The ORGAN - The Father of the Synthesizer Part III

If you recall the Organ Performance "All 9 Bars" PART 1 gives you the first 8 Drawbars and PART 2 gives you the 9th (1') drawbar... All9Bars_Pt1.png
you can play the bugle harmonics with sliders 5-8 of PART 1
The old North American land-line Dial Tone is a Major third interval (F-A) created with the 2' and the 1 3/5'
Attachments (1)
  1. more than a month ago
  2. MONTAGE Series Synthesizers
  3. # 3
Accepted Answer Pending Moderation
Thanks for that great answers.
I missunderstood the article in that point.
A very good explanation.
@Bad Mister
Thanks for the links.
Thanks for the information about the free download of the performances.
  1. more than a month ago
  2. MONTAGE Series Synthesizers
  3. # 4
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